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Central Nervous System Disorders
 
Central Nervous System Disorders
 

Epilepsy

 
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Pathogenesis

    • Causes of Epilepsy

    • Genetic
    • Trauma - open or closed head injury, neurosurgery
    • Cerebrovascular - haemorrhage, ischaemia, arteriovenous malformation
    • Malignancy - glioma, meningioma, metastasis
    • CNS infection - meningitis, encephalitis, malaria, tuberculosis
    • Autoimmune - systemic lupus erythematosus
    • Degeneration - Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis
    • Idiopathic
    • Potential Precipitants of Seizures

    • Sleep deprivation
    • Fatigue
    • Fasting
    • Drugs
    • Alcohol
    • Flashing lights
    • Fever
    • Stress
    • Menstruation
    • Missed antiepileptic dosing

Overview

    • Epilepsy Syndromes

    • Neonatal / Infantile

    • Ohtahara syndrome
    • West syndrome
    • Doose syndrome
    • Dravet syndrome
    • Myoclonic epilepsy of infancy
    • Childhood

    • Lennox-Gastaut syndrome
    • Childhood absence epilepsy
    • Benign Rolandic epilepsy
    • Adolescence / Adulthood

    • Juvenile absence epilepsy
    • Juvenule myoclonic epilepsy
    • Temporal lobe epilepsy

    Management

      • Management Options for Epilepsy

      • Non-Pharmacologic

      • Avoidance of precipitants
      • Avoidance of driving (consult local guidelines)
      • Pharmacologic

      • Carbamazepine
      • Phenytoin
      • Sodium valproate
      • Topiramate
      • Levetiracetam
      • Lamotrigine
      • Lacosamide
      • Ethosuxamide
      • Benzodiazepines
      • Invasive Options

      • Surgical resection of an epileptogenic lesion
      • Vagus nerve stimulation
      • Deep brain stimulation
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