Cardio History

Cardiovascular History-Taking



  • A thorough history is vital for the diagnosis of patients with issues such as chest pain, heart failure symptoms, palpitations or syncope. The cardiovascular history may also provide important insight into patients' cardiac status, and their risk of future cardiovascular disease in the future.

Presenting Complaint

  • The first step is to ask the patient why they presented with their current issue.
    • Common cardiovascular symptoms include:
    • Chest pain - concerning for coronary ischaemia infarction, though there are a wide variety of causes of chest pain
    • Dyspnoea (shortness of breath) - a common symptom of heart failure
    • Palpitations - the sensation of fast, slow or irregular beating of the heart
    • Presyncope / syncope - the feeling of fainting, or being about to faint
    • Peripheral oedema (swelling) - classically a symptom of heart failure
    • Lower limb pain

History of Presenting Complaint

  • When asking for more information about a patient’s symptoms, start by asking general questions such as “could you please tell me more about that”, and then narrow down the questions as more information is provided.
    • Generally speaking, the following questions are a good starting point for any type of pain, and may be useful in gaining information about other symptoms:
    • Site - localised or generalised; unilateral or bilateral
    • Onset - sudden or gradual, and what the situation was (e.g. following trauma)
    • Character - sharp, dull, burning or pressure-like
    • Radiation - e.g. down the arm or across the back
    • Associated symptoms - e.g. fevers, nausea / vomiting, bony pain
    • Timing - duration of symptoms, frequency of episodes, changes through the day
    • Exacerbating & alleviating factors - e.g. exacerbation with exertion and alleviation with rest
    • Severity - on a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being the worst

Past Medical History

Medication History

Family History

  • Ask about family history of cardiac disease, such as ischaemic heart disease, cardiomyopathies or arrhythmias.
  • Also ask about any sudden cardiac death that may have occurred in the family.

Social History

  • It is important to understand any patient’s social situation when taking their history. This includes key aspects such as their occupation (or previous occupation, if retired), living situation, mobility and ability to perform activities of daily living.
  • Of particular importance in the cardiovascular history is a patient’s diet and exercise history.
  • When taking a nutritional history, ask about the number of meals the patient eats per day, any snacking in between, and what they would eat on a usual day. This can provide valuable information about a patient’s cardiovascular risk, particularly in an obese or diabetic patient.
  • In assessing a patient’s exercise history, ask about the amount of time they spend exercising as well as what type of exercise they perform. A sedentary lifestyle is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

Substance History



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