Haem Exam


The Patient

The Hands

The Arms

The Face

The Neck

The Chest

The Abdomen

The Pelvis

The Back

The Legs

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Oropharyngeal Inspection
    • How to Perform
    • Ask the patient to open their mouth and make an ‘ahh' sound, in order to contract the palate and uvula. Depress the tongue if required in order to visualise the posterior pharynx.
    • Look For
    • Erythema
    • Swelling of tonsils
    • Exudate
    • Ulcers - viral infection, neoplasm
    • Petechiae on soft palate - pathognomonic for bacterial infection
Pharyngeal Erythema
    • Look For
    • Redness of the posterior pharynx.
    • Causes of Pharyngeal Erythema
    • Viral infection - influenza, coronavirus, rhinovirus, enterovirus, HIV, EBV, CMV, HSV
    • Bacterial infection - group A Streptococcus, pneumococcus, Staph aureus, haemophilus
    • Irritation - postnasal drip, reflux, malignancy, chemical ingestion
    • Tonsillitis
    • Look For
    • Enlarged, inwardly displaced tonsils. Look for erythema and pus.
    • Interpretation
    • Asymmetric swelling - may be associated with uvular deviationPeritonsilar abscess (quinsy)
    • Symmetric swellingTonsillitis
Pharyngeal Exudate
    • Look For
    • Pus or mucus on the posterior wall of the pharynx.
    • Interpretation
    • Pus - bacterial pharyngitis, EBV
    • White patches - candidiasis
    • Grey, membranous exudate - diphtheria