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0.9% Sodium Chloride

    0.9% Sodium Chloride


  • 0.9% sodium chloride is a crystalloid fluid commonly used for fluid resuscitation and maintenance. This fluid contains supraphysiologic amounts of sodium and chloride, and should be avoided in large quantities.
    • Composition

    • Sodium 154mmol/L
    • Chloride 154mmol/L
    • Pharmacology

    • Not ‘normal’ or isotonic - higher sodium (154mmol vs. 140mmol) and chloride (154mmol vs. 105mmol) concentrations than in serum
    • Mostly migrates extravascularly, resulting in oedema
    • Draws fluid out of cells due to hypertonicity

Clinical Use

    • Indications

    • Volume resuscitation for shock
    • Fluid replacement in diabetic ketoacidosis
    • Dehydration
    • Metabolic alkalosis secondary to fluid loss
    • Severe hypercalcaemia
    • Vehicle for intravenous medication administration
    • Contraindications

    • Fluid overload - congestive cardiac failure, severe renal impairment, excessive IV fluids
    • Adverse Effects

    • Fluid overload – electrolyte abnormalities, peripheral oedema, pulmonary oedema
    • Hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis (NAGMA)
Last updated on January 1st, 2017